The area of Turkmenistan is 491,21 thousand km². In the south Turkmenistan borders with Iran and Afghanistan, with Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan in the north, and with the Caspian Sea in the East.
Over 80 percent of Turkmenistan’s territory is covered by the Karakum desert, which mainly spreads across the center of the country. Approximately 15 percent of the territory of Turkmenistan is occupied by hills and mountains. The highest peak in the country is Mount Airy Baba with an altitude of 3139m.
Turkmenistan - is a democratic, legal, secular state and its government takes is a presidential republic.
The Constitution of Turkmenistan is the main law of state, according to which the state structure of Turkmenistan is based on the principle of separation of powers into legislative, executive and judicial branches, which operate independently, balancing each other.
The Turkmen President is the guarantor of national independence, of the country’s neutrality status, its territorial integrity, the respect for the constitution and international obligations. The President is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of Turkmenistan.
On 27 October 1991 Turkmenistan became an independent state and since then this date is celebrated as the country's Independence Day.
On 12 December 1995 with the unanimous support of all 185 Member States of the United Nations General Assembly Member States Turkmenistan was recognized as a permanently neutral state.